Welcome to the coating specialists!
We have since 1965 experience in the flaming technology. Today, we use newest robot technology in the spraying process with wire and
powder. Metal spraying, mechanical engineering and sandblasting is our core business. We repaired already many complicated machine parts more economically with electric-arc spraying process, than this would have
been possible with a new creation. When may we work on your parts?
Important advantages by using coating processes
No expensive new parts!
Shorter time to market!
No distortion of the workpiece!
Interesting material mating (e.g. steel on aluminum)!
Increase of the parts lifetime by high-wearing materials!
Flexibility with onsite metal spraying and
Cheap and fast!
Notice: We expanded and moved !
Now we can offer the following innovations to you:
Abrasive blasting area with a size of 6 x 3.5m
Hangar crane for a max. weight of 5t
Newest electric-arc spraying plant
Coating of shafts up to a length of 4m and a weight of 5t
Convince yourself from the advantages of metal spraying with a sample order.
Ranges of application of metal spraying
Re-establishment of worn out machine parts
Improvement of the electrical and thermal conductivity on contact points
Electrical and thermal isolation
Metal spraying processes
We work with the following processes:
Electric-arc spraying (EASP) with wire
Flam spraying (FLSP) with wire or powder
The layers of electric-arc process are characterized by a outstanding adhesion, yet not reached in the flame spraying. The spraying
particles weld with the basic material.
Arbitrarily strong layers from 0.2mm to 20mm can be laid on.
The sprayed coatings can hardly be differentiated by colour from the basic material.
Good machinability of the oxide-poor sprayed coatings.
Electric-arc sprayed coatings have approximately 3 times higher strength and smaller contraction strain than flaming sprayed
Metal sprayed coatings are micro porous, which has big advantages for sliding bearings and Simmerring seats.
Independently the basic material can all materials be coated e.g. babbitt metal on aluminium
For further information we are happy to answer your questions.
Typical applications of metal spraying
These workpieces are particularly suitable for metal coating:
Eccentric shafts, cam shafts, crankshafts
Guide rails, guide ways, setting wedges
Brake disks, V-belt pulleys
Cross beams, ball and socket bearings
Piston rods, pin, axles
Plunger, piston, valves
Pinion shafts, worn shafts
Firm and sliding bearing seats
Simmering and sliding seats
Examples of redone parts
Worn parts from cast steel. Right wave covered with masking tape and sand blasted, left finished coated bearings with aluminium
bronze (CuAl 8). Aluminium parts with improved bearing quatity. Roll with new coating Coqwheel with hard coating Parts coated with rust free steel. Gear shafts Newly coated bearing parts Parts coated with Osu-60/l
(13% chrome-plated steel) and polished. Crankshaft repair with flame or electric-arc spraying process. Anodensubporte: Aluminium coated wit copper (Cu) for low electric restistance Repair of huge wave shaft (wrong
cut). Parts up to 4m and 1.9t can be coated! Crosshead from grey cast iron bearing surfaces coated with babbitt metal on tin basis (SnSbCu 7 4). Robot in coating action. Automated process for series. Hard coating
70HRc Electric-arc spraying head
We repair your worn machine parts!
Firm and bearing seats
Simmering and sliding seats
Piston rods, pin, axles, waves
Outside and inside seats
Eccentric shafts, cam shafts
No distortion (workpiece does not heat up)
Large selection of materials!
Wedge courses and drillings can for coating be taped off, no rework!
Interesting material mating! (e.g. AlBz on grey cast iron)
Good workability of the sprayed coatings. We offer turning and cylindrical surface grinding.
Competent consultation! Call us. We gladly advise you and give you a concrete offer!
Use of coatings with metallization systems:
General wearing parts:
Rollers, grip arm, guidance, rims, measurer, pan bottoms, forms, extrusion, shears, pliers, roles, coils, gas bottles, hydraulic
parts, camp, spindles, knuckle, crosshead, plunger, piston, valves, brake disks, V-belt pulleys, eccentric shafts, cam shafts, crankshafts, cross beams, ball and socket bearing, waves, piston rods, pin, axles,
pinion shafts, , shafts guide rails, guide ways, setting wedges
Parts for different functionalities like:
Corrosion protection, electrical conductivity, improved sliding qualities, repeated service life increase, corrosion resistance,
wear-resisting quality, oxidation protection, high temperature protection, re-establishment of the original dimension, abrasion resistance, preventing protection, improved corrosion resistance, new surface,
non-adhesive, transfer of energy, isolation
Parts with resistance against:
Grain abrasion, friction, cavitation, particle erosion to 1000°C temperature load, chemical attacks, electricity, heat corrosion,
wear, abrasion, erosion, cavitation, atmospheric corrosion, screen electromagnetic radiation, chemical corrosion, screen against disturbances by radio frequency
Parts with improvement of:
Soldering ability, optimization of the adhesion, appearance, weight saving (combination of different materials), balance by
structure of weight, machinability
Parts of engines, transmissions, pumps, fans, turbines:
Construction machines, boat engines, diesel engines, petrols engines, gas engines, drive unit, compressor, transmission case bearing
seats, engine repair, engine maintenance, camp, axles, seals, engine component repair of passenger car, truck. General automobile and boat industry, crane installations, agricultural machines, aviation, railway,
ship and steamer parts, steam valves
Bearing surfaces of roll pin, anchor axles, impeller shafts, knuckle, bars, hard surfaces, plunger, piston guidance, structuring of
a heat barrier, shoes, applications on pressing and shrinking seats, antifriction bearing seats, beds, improvement of the heat conductivity, guide ways, repair of crankshafts, main and connecting rod bearing places,
excavator wave, augers, fans, bearing seats, creation of a not wettable surface, non-adhesive coatings, self-lubricating layer systems, rough profiles for the increase of the sliding friction value, protection
against sparking, creation of a micro-porous, self-lubricating surface, making a controllable wear possible to the "self fitting", resistant surface, roughen surface, high coefficient of friction, porous
coatings, formation of an electrical isolation, improvement of the wettability, increase of the electrical conductivity, not magnetic intermediate layers, structure of reflector surfaces, anti-corrosive coatings
with different materials
Parts of the different industries like
Machine tool industry, textile industry, agriculture, construction industry, metallurgy, automobile industry, aviation, printer
industry, mining industry, shipbuilding, energy engineering and production, hydraulics, medicine etc.
Layer types of metal spraying
The area of application of metal spraying is very broad. With the new coating, new functions are independently of the base material
possible:Possible kinds of layer Soft and hard coatings Resistance against wear Resistance against grain abrasion Resistance against hard surfaces Resistance against friction Resistance against chemical corrosion
and atmospheric corrosion Resistance against heat corrosion Resistance against erosion Resistance against abrasion Resistance against oxidation (soldering ability improves) Resistance against electricity Resistance
against cavitation Increase of electrical conductivity Increase of the sliding qualities Increase of the transfer of energy Increase of the isolation Improvement of the machinability Weight reduction Screen against
electromagnetic radiation Screen against high frequencies Tungsten carbide sliding surfaces High temperature protection Self-lubricating layer systems Non-adhesive coatings Increase of the sliding friction value
Customized layer development New surface (appearance and aesthetics) Preventing protection layer Re-establishment of the original dimension
Re-establishment of worn out machine parts Expensive timeconsuming new preparations are void Shorter down-times No distortion of the
workpiece Interesting material mating (e.g. steel on aluminum) Variable layer thickness possible No rework by covering of unwanted coating places Increase of the service life by high-wear materials New layer
function selectable independently to base material Good workability of the sprayed coatings Flexibility by onsite metal spraying and deposit welding Time and cost saving Electric arc spraying is our specialityNearly
all materials can be coated by metal spraying in the electric-arc process as for example aluminum, cast iron, plastics, textiles or wood. The base material plays thereby a subordinated role. A outstanding advantage
of metal spraying is the distortion-free coating with all metals available as wire.
How does Electric arc spraying works?
Electric arc spraying is a thermal spraying process that uses an electric arc between two consumable electrodes of the surfacing
materials as the heat source. A compressed gas atomizes and propels the molten material to the workpiece. The two consumable electrode wires are fed by a wire feeder to bring them together at an angle of
approximately 30 degrees and to maintain an arc between them. A compressed air jet is located behind and directly in line with the intersecting wires. The wires melt in the arc and the jet of air atomizes the melted
metal and propels the fine molten particles to the workpiece. The power source for producing the arc is a direct-current constant-voltage welding machine. The wire feeder is similar to that used for gas metal arc
welding except that it feeds two wires. The gun can be hand held or mounted in a holding and movement mechanism. The part or the gun is moved with respect to the other to provide a coating surface on the part.
Electric-arc spraying characteristics Layer thickness: 0.3mm – 20mm HardeningMetal: up to 70 HRC Wire: 1.6mm, 2.0mm, 2.5mm Zerreissfestigkeit: 3 times higher as with flame sprayed layers Colour: almost no difference
from base material Refining: Turning, grinding, polishing,... Cost: CHF/dm² (depending on spraying process, layer thickness etc.) Examples Isolation Purpose Isolation Object Turbocharger inlet shovel Material
Chrome-plated steel Coating Ceramic(s) in the flaming spraying process Wear protection Purpose Longer service lives Object Part from mixer Material Chrome-plated steel Coating 13% CR steel/Ledurit 76 both 50% in the
electric-arc spraying process coated Wear protection Purpose Longer service lives Object Bowl Material Chrome-plated steel Coating AMCO bronze in the electric-arc spraying process Transfer of energy Purpose
Pneumatic cylinder copper upcoating Object Pneumatic cylinder Material Anticorodal Coating AMCO bronze in the electric-arc spraying process Further workpiece examples or typical applications.
Preparation of the workpiece for the new coating, degreasing and sandblast with aluminium oxide. Coat depends upon application.
Grinding the workpieces. Packed and storage Portions which may not be coated must be covered with masking tape or non-adhesive color. Spraying a wear protection OSU-60/L Cr 13%. Finish process with cylindrical
surface grinding or turning. Storaged palette ready for transport Best thanks for your order!
Metal spraying with use of roboter technology
We automated electric-arc spraying with a special developed plant. Like that we can faster spray series of workpieces for you
with an even coating without clouding effect. Programming the robot you can of course let up to us. We can offer higher quality as with hand spraying possible.
Within the range of abrasive blasting work we can offer following services to you:
Surface cleaning of colour and rust
Glass or plexiglass unpolish
Chromium-plated steel glass bead blasting
Different blast grains and grain size
Surfaces from rough to fine
Abrasive blasting booth
Automatic bar machine
Abrasive blasting cab
Most diverse parts can be worked on with the plants.
Further service for all sand blasted parts:
Coating in the electric-arc spraying process
With our specialized knowledge we are happy to find for you the solution of abrasive blasting problems even with sample sand
blasting. Please require an offer. We have short time delivery.
Automatic bar machine
Bars and pipes: max to diameter 240 x 6000mm Blast grain: Aluminium oxide Roughness: N7 to N8 With this plant (6 nozzles) we can
economically sand blast bars up to 6m length - regularly without clouding effects.
Sand blasting cab
Cab size: Partial size: max. 1200 x 1000mm Blast grain: Aluminium oxide, glass beads, glass pellet Roughness: N6 to N12 Owing to
integrated turntable and reinforcement also larger and heavier parts can be sand blasted efficiently! Kinds of blast grain:Chill castingBlast grain from cast irons for roughening up, descaling, derusting and
clearing away surfaces.Cast steelSharp-edged blast grain from recompensed high coal steel with long service life and high breaking strength. Steelgrit is used for cleaning with excellent surface finish, for
pretreatment before enamelling, painting and coating. Due to the hardness impurities themselves they are removed under difficult conditions. Spherical blast grain from recompensed high coal steel with long service
life and high breaking strength. Steelshot is used for cleaning and shot-peening.CorundumSharp edged, abrasives alumina with continuous cleaning and erosion effect. Been suitable to remove hard layers and for
surface activation before coating metallic and non-metallic materials.Glass beadsGlass beads consist from a mineral and of a synthetic portion. They are particularly suitable for obtaining silk matte effects on
high-grade steel sheet metals.Ceramic(s) beadsCeramic(s) beads consist of a mineral and of a synthetic portion. Opposite glass beads they exhibit a substantially higher service life and the surface are less size
sensitive.Plastic granulatesPlastic is a synthetic blast grain, suitable particularly for plastic and soft parts as well as sensitive forms.
Abrasive blasting booth
We have a large blasting booth, so we can clean also larger special parts for you. Booth size: 6x3.5m Weight: max 1.5t Blast grain:
Aluminium oxide Roughness: N9 Pump Careful blasting work on bones Drum automat Small parts can economically be sandblasted in the drum automat. Small parts: up to 1kg Blast grain: Aluminium oxide, glass beads, glass
pellet Roughness: N7 to N9 Drum for the workpieces
With our driving workshop we can onsite apply a new coating with the electric-arc process or use deposition welding.
We offer to you:
Mobile metal spraying
Mobile deposition welding
Mobile electric arc sprayings is used where a transport of the workpiece is impossible (e.g. fixed carrier). The base material of
the part which can be coated plays a subordinated role, since different material combination are possible.
Deposition welding is particularly used with the repair of bad drillings and can even be applied onsite. Too large or damaged
drillings can be welded up and worked on again on measure.
Which drilling can be repaired with the mobile deposition welding plant?
Drillings with a diameter of 50-200mm and a depth of up to 300mm.
Which advantages do I have?
New preparations are avoided, repair is more economical
Timesaving, because we can come to you; we are mobile and fast
Example of a welded up drilling
For better recognition is the drilling cut open
We have the possibility to even work on odd sized workpieces.
What are your parts like?
Turning lathe conventionally:
Boehringer Goeppingen VDF type E 560
Point length: 2'500 mm
Peak height over bed: 300 mm
Peak height over carriage: 200 mm
Accessories: Steady rest
Grinding machine (internal and external) conventionally:
Point length: 750 mm
Peak height: 180 mm
Download sprayable material data sheet
The list of the newest sprayable materials in tabular form
S prayable materials (German only)
Sprayable materials (German only)
Factsheet of Buehrer AG (PDF document)
How to find Buehrer AG, Otelfingen
Feedback und Comments
About you Forename Surname* Company Street/ Nr. PC/ City Phone Email Adress* Feedback by ...? ? Call email My interest: Metal
spraying Sand blasting Engineering How do you know us? Internet Friends Swisstech exebition different Comment? ??? How can we start working for you?Usually after a telephone or email we get a drawing by fax or
email.With the received drawing and purpose of workpiece we can give you an offer.Why not try with a sample order our service? BÜHRER AGLauetstrasse 13CH-8112 OtelfingenTel +41 (0)1 844 25 50Fax +41 (0)1 844 24
History of the Buehrer AG
1964 Richard Buehrer founded the company as a private firm. Already in the first years not only the flaming and powder spraying
process was used, but also the new electric-arc process, characterised by a outstanding adhesion, a good cutting property and a 3 times higher strength.
1974 With the purchase of turning lathe and cylindrical-surface grinding machine now also the necessary finishing could be
1988 The private firm was converted into a corporation.
1994 Martin Buehrer took over the management. The company name changed to BUEHRER AG.
1998 Investment into the robot technology. New large surfaces with a regular layer are possible.
1999 Because of a short-circuit the whole workroom burned out. After only one month of intensive reorganization it could be coated
again. With a " day of the open door ", we celebrated the reopening of the enterprise with our customers.
2001 On 18 March Richard Buehrer, founder and board of directors president of the BUEHRER AG, died after short serious illness.
2002 Moving into the larger premises to the Lauetstrasse in Otelfingen, where we work with the newest electric-arc spraying plant
and a ABB robot for you.
Certified Mechanical Engineer
We put also great importance to the environment. Metal dust is collected separately and recycled.
We fulfill also the highest requirements to pure air regulations with the newest filter system installed.
Where ever waste can be avoided, we act accordingly.
This Lexikon should give some help referred to metal spraying questions.
Coatings which are designed to be abraded by a mating surface to form a tight gas or air seal, while retaining good erosion
A process for cleaning and roughening a surface by means of an abrasive directed at high velocity against the work piece.
Unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon gas. Used as a fuel gas in combustion thermal spray processes, welding and cutting. Acetylene has
the highest flame temperature and requires the smallest amount amount of oxygen to form a neutral flame.
Any metallic element added during the making of steel for the purpose of increasing corrosion resistance, hardness, or strength. The
metals used most commonly as alloying elements in stainless steel include chromium, nickel, and molybdenum.
An iron-based mixture is considered to be an alloy steel when manganese is greater than 1.65%, silicon over 0.5%, copper above 0.6%,
or other minimum quantities of alloying elements such as chromium, nickel, molybdenum, or tungsten are present. An enormous variety of distinct properties can be created for the steel by substituting these elements
in the recipe. Addition of such alloying elements is usually for the purpose of increased hardness, strength or chemical resistance.
Steel melted in a furnace with an acid bottom and lining and under a slag containing an excess of an acid substance such as silica.
Heating to and holding at a suitable temperature and then cooling at a suitable rate, for such purposes as reducing hardness,
improving machinability, facilitating cold working, producing a desired microstructure, or obtaining desired mechanical, physical, or other properties.
A group of welding processes wherein the metal or metals being joined are coalesced by heating with an arc, with or without the
application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal.
Aluminising (Thermal Spray Method)
Thermal sprayed coatings of aluminium usually on substrates of steel or nickel chromium alloys which are subsequently heat treated
to aluminise the surface.
noncrystalline, or devoid of regular structure.
The value obtained by testing a coating or sintered material with standard indentation hardness equipment.
Arc Wire Spraying
A thermal spray process where two electrically conducting wires are brought together to form an electric arc. Molten material formed
in the arc is projected by a compressed gas stream towards the work piece to form a coating.
Monatomic noble gas, atomic number 18, one of the most inert elements. Commonly used as a plasma gas for plasma spraying and
providing inert environments for many processes.
Steel melted in a furnace with a basic bottom and lining and under a slag containing an excess of a basic substance such as magnesia
A cementing medium used in producing composite or agglomerate powders.
A pressurised stream of particlulates (ceramic, plastic, metal, , etc.) applied on a surface to clean, peen or abrade.
Steel that has properties made up mostly of the element carbon and which relies on the
carbon content for structure. Most of the steel produced in the world is carbon steel.
Usually nitrogen or argon gas that carries powder into the thermal spray process.
The formation and rapid collapse within a liquid of cavities or bubbles that contain vapour or gas or both.
An alloying element that is the essential stainless steel raw material for conferring corrosion resistance. A film that naturally
forms on the surface of stainless steel self-repairs in the presence of oxygen if the steel is damaged mechanically or chemically, and thus prevents corrosion from occurring.
The application of a layer of material onto the surface of a substrate.
Mixture of two or more materials. Many thermal spray coatings could be considered as composites.
Chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material and it's environment which results in deterioration in the properties of the
Wear in which chemical or electrochemical reaction with the environment is significant.
The gradual degradation or alteration of steel caused by atmosphere, moisture, or other agents.
A compound of iron and carbon, known chemically as iron carbide and having the approximate chemical formula Fe3C. It is
characterized by an orthorhombic crystal structure. When it occurs as a phase in steel, the chemical composition will be altered by the presence of manganese and other carbide-forming elements.
Steel usually made by the electric furnace process in which chromium and nickel participate as alloying elements. The stainless
steel of 18% chromium and 8% nickel are the better known of the chromium-nickel types.
A thermal spray process in which the coating material is heated and accelerated to the workpiece by a series of detonations or
explosions from oxy-fuel gas mixtures.
The property of certain materials that enables them to return to their original dimensions after an applied stress.
Removal of material from a surface due to mechanical interaction between that surface and a fluid, a multicomponent fluid, or
impinging liquid or solid particles.
Electric Arc Furnace (EAF)
Steelmaking furnace where scrap is generally 100% of the charge. Heat is supplied from electricity that arcs from the graphite
electrodes to the metal bath. Furnaces may be either an alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC). DC units consume less energy and fewer electrodes, but they are more expensive.
Electric Arc Spraying (EASP)
Electric Resistance Welded (ERW) Pipe
Pipe made from strips of hot-rolled steel which are passed through forming rolls and welded. While seamless pipe is traditionally
stronger and more expensive than comparable ERW pipe, ERW technology is improving and the technique now accounts for approximately 48% of OCTG shipments by tonnage.
Wear of a solid surface caused by fracture arising from material fatigue.
The second-largest class of stainless steel, constituting approximately 25% of stainless production.
Ferritic stainless steels are plain chromium steels with no significant nickel content; the lack of nickel results in lower
corrosion resistance than the austenitics (chromium-nickel stainless steels). Ferritics are best suited for general and high-temperature corrosion applications rather than services requiring high strength. They are
used in automotive trim and exhaust systems, interior architectural trim, and hot water tanks. Two of the most common grades are type 430 (general-purpose grade for many applications, including decorative ones) and
type 409 (low-cost grade well suited to withstanding high temperatures).
A metal product commonly used as a raw material feed in steelmaking, usually containing iron and other metals, to aid various stages
of the steelmaking process such as deoxidation, desulfurization, and adding strength. Examples: ferrochrome, ferromanganese, and ferrosilicon.
An alloy of iron and chromium with up to 72% chromium. Ferrochrome is commonly used as a raw material in the making of stainless
Metals that consist primarily of iron.
The localised surface heating of a medium carbon steel by an impinging gas flame so that the temperature is raised above 900oC. The
part is quenched (or self-quenches by virtue of the remaining cool bulk of the component) and tempered to produce a hard martensitic structure at the surface.
Flame spraying (FLSP)
A thermal spraying process in which the particles are heated and accelerated in a flame (combustion flame, plasma flame). Old term
for thermal spray process. FLSP was the first thermal spraying process. It use 2760 ºC (5000 ºF) oxyacetylene flame to melt the targets which may be powders, rods, or wires.
The reaction force resulting from surface interaction and adhesion during sliding. The friction Coefficient is defined as the
friction force divided by the load.
Steel coated with a thin layer of zinc to provide corrosion resistance in underbody auto parts, garbage cans, storage tanks, or
fencing wire. Sheet steel normally must be cold-rolled prior to the galvanizing stage.
Accelerated corrosion of a metal because of an electrical contact with a more noble metal or nonmetallic conductor in a corrosive
Particles having approximately equidimensional nonspherical shapes.
The removal of material by the use of fixed abrasives like grinding wheels or emery paper.
A pressurised stream of hard metal or oxide grit material used to clean and roughen surfaces prior to coating.
Process that increases the hardness of steel, i.e., the degree to which steel will resist cutting, abrasion, penetration, bending,
and stretching. The increased endurance provided by hardening makes steel suitable for additional applications. Hardening can be achieved through various methods, including (1) heat treatment, where the properties
of steel are altered by subjecting the steel to a series of temperature changes; and (2) cold working, in which changes in the structure and shape of steel are achieved through rolling, hammering, or stretching the
steel at a relatively low temperature.
A test designed to assess the resistance to penetration from a load. The surface is indented under a defined load and the depth or
area of penetration is measured.
Monatomic noble gas, Most inert element, atomic number 2. Used as a plasma gas in plasma spraying.
High Velocity Oxy-fuel Spraying (HVOF)
A Thermal spray process. The spray powder particles are injected into a high velocity jet formed by the combustion of oxygen and
fuel, heated and accelerated to the workpiece.
Diatomic gas, atomic number 1, The lightest element, very reactive and powerful reducing agent. Used as a secondary plasma gas in
the plasma spraying process and as a fuel gas in combustion thermal spray processes (CWS, CPS and HVOF).
The localised surface heating of a medium carbon steel by an induction coil so that the temperature is raised above 900oC. The part
is quenched (or self-quenches by virtue of the remaining cool bulk of the component) and tempered to produce a hard martensitic structure at the surface.
Altering the properties of steel by subjecting it to a series of temperature changes. To increase the hardness, strength, or
ductility of steel so that it is suitable for additional applications. The steel is heated and then cooled as necessary to provide changes in the structural form that will impart the desired characteristics. The
time spent at each temperature and the rates of cooling have significant impact on the effect of the treatment.
Steel with more than 0.3% carbon. The more carbon that is dissolved in the iron, the less formable and the tougher the steel
becomes. High-carbon steel's hardness makes it suitable for plow blades, shovels, bedsprings, cutting edges, or other high-wear applications.
Elements or compounds whose presence in a material is undesired.
The resistance of a meterial to indentation. This is the usual type osf hardness test, in which a pointed or rounded indenter is
pressed into a surface under a substantially static load.
A process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above the transformation range by means of electrical induction, and then
cooling as required.
(Chemical symbol Fe.) Element No. 26 of the periodic system; Atomic weight 55.85. A magnetic silver white metal of high tensile
strength, ductile and malleable. Melting point of pure iron about 2795 (degrees) F. Chemically iron is chiefly base forming. The principal forms of commercial iron are steel, cast iron and wrought iron.
Liquid fuel used in some HVOF thermal spray processes.
Life Cycle Costing
An accounting method of costing where expenses are allocated over the life of the product. Life cycle costs are often lower for
stainless steel than for alternatives despite a higher initial outlay, because stainless products generally last longer and require little maintenance.
Steel with less than 0.005% carbon is more ductile (malleable): It is capable of being drawn out or rolled thin for use in
automotive body applications. Carbon is removed from the steel bath through vacuum degassing.
Corrosion at discrete sites, for example, pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking.
The relative ease of machining a metal.
A process of annealing white cast iron in such a way that the combined carbon is wholly or partly transformed to graphitic or free
carbon or, in someinstances, part of the carbon is removed completely.
(Chemical symbol Mn.) Element No. 25 of the periodic system; atomic weight 54.93. Lustrous, reddish-white metal of hard brittle and,
therfore, non-malleable character. The metal is used in large quantities in the form of Spiegel and Ferromanganese for steel manufacture as well as in manganese and many copper-base alloys.
Element intermediate conductivity between the true metals and non-metals. Arsenic, antimony, boron, tellurium, and selenium, etc.,
are generally considered metalloids; frequently one allotropic modification of an element will be non-metallic, another metalloid in character. Obviously, no hard and fast line can be drawn.
The properties of a material that reveal its elastic and inelastic behavior where force is applied, thereby indicating its
suitability for mechanical application; for example, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, elongation, hardness, and fatigue limit.
Plastic deformation or other physical change to which metal is subjected, by rolling, hammering, drawing., etc. to change its shape,
properties or structure.
Contains from 0.30% to 0.60% carbon and less than 1.00% manganese. May be made by any of the standard processes.
The range of temperature in which an alloy melt; that is the range between solidus and liquidus temperatures.
An opaque, lustrous, elemental substance that is a good conductor of heat and electricity and, when polished, a good reflector or
light. Most metals are malleable and ductile and are, in general, denser than other substances.
Is a recommended repair method for large damaged or uncoated areas of a galvanized item.
A process for applying a coating of metal to an object. The metal, usually in the form of wire, is melted by an oxyhydrogen or
oxyacetylene blast or by an electric arc and is proficted at high speed by gas pressure against the object being coated.
The hardness of a coating as measured on a microscopic scale. Can show the hardness of individual phases within the coating and
avoid the effects of porosity.
The structure of a prepared surface of a metal as revealed by a microscope at a magnification greater than ten diameters.
An alloying element used as a raw material for some classes of stainless steel. Molybdenum in the presence of chromium enhances the
corrosion resistance of stainless steel.
Modulus of Elasticity
A measure of the rigidity of metal. Ratio of stress, within proportional limit, to corresponding strain.
(Chemical symbol Mo) Element No. 42 of the peridic system; atomic weight 95.95. Hard, tough metal of grayish-white color, becoming
very ductile and malleable when properly treated at high temperatures.
An alloying element used as a raw material for certain classes of stainless steel. Nickel provides high degrees of ductility
(ability to change shape without fracture) as well as resistance to corrosion. Approximately 65% of all nickel is used in the making of stainless steel.
Copper base alloys that contain 10-45% Zn. and 5-30% Ni.
Steel containing nickel as an alloying element. Varying amounts are added to increase the strength in the normalized condition to
enable hardening to be performed in oil or air instead of water.
The electrolytic deposition of nickel to form a corrosion barrier or to reclaim a worn part. Can also include hard ceramic particles
to from a wear resistant composite coating.
Diatomic gas. Used as a primary and secondary gas in plasma spraying. Inert to most materials, with some exceptions like titanium.
Metals or alloys that are free of iron or comparatively.
A heat treatment applied to steel, Involves heating above the critical range followed by cooling in still air. Is performed to
refine the crystal structure and eliminate internal stress.
Heating a metal or alloy to such a high temperature that its properties are impaired. When the original properties cannot be
restored by further heat treating, by mechanical working, or by combination of working and heat treating, the overheating is known as burning.
The addition of oxygen to a compound. Exposure to atmosphere sometimes results in oxidation of the exposed surface, hence a staining
or discoloration. This effect is increased with temperature increase. Loss of electrons by a constituent of a chemical reaction. (Also refers to the corrosion of a metal that is exposed to an oxidising gas at
Gas used to support combustion of fuel gases in combustion thermal spray processes. Achieves much higher flame temperatures than
Compound of oxygen with another element.
The controlling lineal dimension of an individual particle as determined by analysis with sieves or other suitable means.
Plasma Spraying (PSP)
A thermal spraying process in which the heat source is a plasma flame. Similar to flame spraying, PSP however produces 16,650 ºC
(30,000 ºF) heat for melting powders and yet the surface temperature of the substrate rarely exceeds 150 ºC (300 ºF).Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA)
The presence of pores or voids in a coating, usually expressed as a percentage by volume.
Fabrication technology in which fine metallic powder is compacted under high pressure and then heated at a temperature slightly
below the melting point to solidify the material. Primary users of powder metal parts are auto, electronics and aerospace industries.
Precipitation Hardening (PH)
A small group of stainless steels with high chromium and nickel content, with the most common types having characteristics close to
those of martensitic (plain chromium stainless class with exceptional strength) steels. Heat treatment provides this class with its very high strength and hardness. Applications for PH stainless steels include
shafts for pumps and valves as well as aircraft parts.
Nickel alloys containing about 20 to 60% Fe, used for their high magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity.
A thin coating of metal laid on another metal.
The finish obtained by buffing with rouge or similar fine abrasive, resulting in a high gloss or polish.
Producing a specularly reflecting surface.
Aliphatic hydrocarbon gas used as a fuel gas in thermal spray processes.
Hydrocarbon gas used as a fuel gas in thermal spray processes. Higher flame temperature than hydrogen and propane.
All aspects of the control of the spraying process including the surface preparation, spraying, control of thickness deposited and
the oxide and porosity levels, surface finish.
Quench Hardening (Steel)
A process of hardening a ferrous alloy of suitable composition by heating within or above the transformation range and cooling at a
rate sufficient to increase the hardness substantially. The process usually involves the formation of martensite.
Reduction of Area
The difference, expressed as a percentage of original area, between original cross-sectional area and that after straining the
Rockwell Hardness (Test)
A standard method for measuring the hardness of metels. The hardness is expressed as a number related to the depth of residual
penetration of a steel ball or diamond cone (brale) after a minor load of 10 kilograms has been applied to hold the penetrator in position. This residual penetration is automatically registered on a dial when the
major load is removed from the penetrator. Various dial readings combined with different major loads, five scales designated by letters varying from A to H; the B and C scales are most commonly in use.
A process which, by absorption of a sealer into thermal spray coatings, seals porosity and increases resistance to corrosion of the
underlying substrate material.
A decrease in dimensions of a coating during processing.
The residual stress in a coating caused by shrinkage during processing.
The bombardment of a component surface with steel or ceramic shot. Produces a residual compressive stress in the surface and
improves fatigue and stress corrosion performance.
A gaseous and/or mechanical or physical barrier placed around the spraying process designed to reduce the ingress of air into the
system and so reduce oxidation of the of the materials being sprayed.
A process that combines iron-bearing particles, once recovered from environmental control filters, into small pellets. Previously,
these materials were too fine to withstand the air currents of the smelting process and were thrown away. The iron is now conserved because the chunks can be charged into the blast furnace.
The term for grades of steel that contain more than 10% chromium, with or without other alloying elements. Stainless steel resists
corrosion, maintains its strength at high temperatures, and is easily maintained. For these reasons, it is used widely in items such as automotive and food processing products, as well as medical and health
Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
Slow growth of cracks in stainless steel caused by the combined effect of mechanical stress and exposure to a corrosive environment.
A hardness test where the loss in kinetic energy of a falling metal tup, absorbed by indentation upon impact of the tup on the metal
being tested, is indicated by the height of rebound.
Shore Hardness Test
Same as scleroscope test.
Chemical symbol Si. Element No. 14 of the periodic system; atomic weight 28.06. Extremely common element, the major component of all
rodks and sands; its chemical reactions, however, are those of a metalloid. Used in metallurgy as a deoxidizing scavenger. Silicon is present, to some extent, in all steels, and is deliberately added to the extent
of approximately 4% for electric sheets, extensively used in alternating current magnetic circuits. Silicon cannot be electrodeposited.
Steel usually made in the basic open-hearth or electric furnace, with about 0.50-5.% silicon, other elements being usually dept as
low as possible. Because of high electrical resistance and low hysterisis loss, silicon sheet and strip are standard in electric magnet manufacture.
Converting powder into a continuous mass by heating to a temperature considerably below fusion, usually after preliminary compacting
A thin surface layer that is different from the main mass of a metal object, in composition, structure or other characteristics.
Joining metals by fusion of alloys that have relatively low melting points -- most commonly, lead-base or tin-base alloys, which are
the soft solders. Hard solders are alloys that have silver, copper, or nickel bases and use of these alloys.
Solution Heat Treatment
A process in which an alloy is heated to a suitable temperature long enough to allow a certain constituent to enter into solid
solution and is then cooled rapidly to hold the constituent in solution. The metal is left in a supersaturated, unstable state and may subsequently exhibit age hardening.
An electric-resistance welding process in which the fusion is limited to a small area. The pieces being welded are pressed together
between a pair of water-cooled electrodes through which an electical current is passed during a very short interval so that fusion occurs over a small area at the interface between the pieces.
A chamber in which the spraying process is carried out. It may merely be an acoustic chamber for plasma spraying or a vacuum chamber
for vacuum plasma spraying.
Cleaning and roughening the surface to be sprayed, usually by grit blasting. This is to increase the adhesion of the coating to the
The application of a coating or cladding to a surface to impart a change in its surface behaviour.
An iron-base alloy, malleable in some temperature range as initially cast, containing manganese, usually carbon, and often-other
A measure of the change in the size or shape of a body, referred to its original size or shape. Deformation produced on a body by an
Low temperature annealing for removing internal stresses, such as those resulting on a metal from work hardening or quenching.
Heating to a suitable temperature, holding long enough to reduce residual stresses and then cooling slowly enough to minimize the
development of new residual stresses.
The arangement of parts; in crystals, expecially, the shape and dimension of the until cell, and the number, kinds and positions of
the atoms within it.
Sheet steel coated with a mixture of lead and tin. Terne principally is used in the manufacture of gasoline tanks, although it also
can be found in chemical containers, oil filters and television chassis.
A customer's specifications can refer to dimensions or to the chemical properties of steel ordered. The tolerance measures the
allowable difference in product specifications between what a customer orders and what the steel company delivers. There is no standard tolerance because each customer maintains its own variance objective.
Tolerances are given as the specification, plus or minus an error factor; the smaller the range, the higher the cost.
In heat treatment, re-heating hardened steel to some temperature below the A1 temperature for the purpose of decreasing hardness
and/or increasing toughness. The process also is sometimes applied to normalized steel.
Thermal barrier coating
A coating forming an insulating barrier to a heat source to protect the substrate.
Thermochemically formed coatings
A painted, dipped or sprayed chromium oxide based coating consolidated by repeated deposition and curing cycles (about 500oC).
A process in which coating material is heated and accelerated from a spray torch towards the workpiece. The deposited material forms
a coating on the surface.
Chemical symbol Sn. Element No. 50 of the periodic system; atomic weight 118.70. Soft silvery white metal of high malleability and
ductility, but low tensile strength; melting point 449 (degrees) F., boiling point 4384 (degrees) F., yielding the longest molten-state range for any common metal; specific gravity 7.28. Principal use as a coating
on steel in tin plate; also as a constituent in alloys.
Coating with tin, commonly either by immersion into molten tin or by electro-deposition; also by spraying.
Chemical symbol Ti. Element No. 22 of the periodic system; atomic weight 47.90; melting point about 3270 (degrees) F.; boiling point
over 5430 (degrees) F.; specific gravity 4.5. Bright white metal, very malleable and ductile when exceedingly pure. Its principal functions as an alloy in the making of steel. High strength and good corrosion
Chemical symbol W. Element No. 74 of the periodic system; atomic weight 183.92. Gray metal of high tensile strength, ductile and
malleable when specially handled. It is immune to atmospheric influences and most acids, but not to strong alkalis. The metal is used as filament and in thin sheet form in incandescent bulbs and radio tubes. Forms
hard abrasion. Promotes hardness and strength at elevated temperatures.
Vacuum or Low Pressure Plasma Spraying
Plasma spraying carried out in a chamber which has been evacuated to a low partial pressure of oxygen. It is then usually partially
backfilled with argon to avoid the possibility of forming a glow discharge.
Chemical symbol V. Element No. 23 of the periodic system; atomic weight 50.95. Gray-white, hard metal, unaffected by atmospheric
influences or alkalis but soluble in most strong acids; melting point 3119 (degrees) F.; boiling point about 6150 (degrees) F.; specific gravity 5.87. It cannot be electrodeposited. Its principal functions as an
alloy in the making of tool steels. (1) Elevates coarsening temperature of austenite (promotes fine grain). (2) Increases hardenability (when dissolved) (3) Resists tempering and causes marked secondary hardening.
A thermal spray process whereby the supply for the coating material is fed into the gun in the form of a continuous wire.
Loss of material from a surface by means of some mechanical action.
Chemical Symbol Zn. Element No. 30 of the periodic system; atomic weight 65.38. Blue-white metal; when pure, malleable and ductile
even at ordinary temperatures; melting point 787 (degrees) F.; boiling point 1665 (degrees) F., specific gravity 7.14. Can be electrodeposited; it is extensively used as a coating for steel and sheet zinc finds many
outlets, such as dry batteries, etc. Zinc-base alloys are of great importance in die casting. Its most important alloy is brass. Thermal spray coatings of zinc or zinc alloys (eg Zn/Al, Zn/Sn) provide galvanic
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